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Journeys and hikes in Morocco

HISTORY OF MOROCCO

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Moroccan flag

Allah, Alwatan , Al malik …. God, Homeland, King ….

That’s the moroccan slogan!


The prehistory



The man is already present, towards 800 000 before J-C, new populations of the Middle East live together with the descendants of the first inhabitants of Morocco. These newcomers are the ascendants of the Berbers family, widened by Mediterranean contributions.


The Pastoralism

By 1600 before J.C., in the Bronze Age, Berber ministers engrave on rocks in the High Atlas the drawings of daggers, of halberds, axes and shields, subjects used formerly by Mauritanian for two big activities : hunting and fishing.


The antiquity

Towards 800-600 before J-C, Morocco enters the history. The libyque writing, invented by the Berbers, appears in the Atlas. and Phoenician are drawn on potteries located on the Essaouira island by 500 before J-C, the Ethiopians, " those who are burned by the sun ", settle down in Morocco. In the North, stay-at-homes live in troglodytic houses; in the South, nomadic riders are hunting. Atlantes, as for them, occupies the center of the Atlas and give their name to the Atlantic Ocean.


In the IV th century before J.C. : birth of Maurétania

The Greeks name the "Mauritians" the western Libyans, naming which the current western inhabitants of Morocco and Algeria give themselves. Between 25 before J-C. and 23 after J-C, Juba II, King of Mauretania, is named at the head of the Kingdom by August and stays in Volubilis. He describes the country in a book used later by Pline. He installs factories of purple on the Mogador island, off Essaouira, and cross the Canary Islands with his navy.


In 42 after J-C., the Roman conquest

The Roman armies take possession of Mauretania Tingitane, highlighted by the creation of roads, knows an agricultural development and an active business. Tingis, Lixus, Volubilis, Benassa spread out. The Roman influence will be preserved in the South, until 429, dates of the transit of the Vandals in this part of Mauritania Tingitane. It would seem that from 533, the Byzantine fleets then Wisigothe occupied Ceuta and Essaouira, only rare objects remain from their visit.


The Moslem conquest

The Islamization : from 682, the Arabic leader Oqba Ibnou Nafi'i, founding of Kairouan, the first Moslem city in Tunisia, begins a raid to the Atlantic Coasts. Berbers and Byzantines rise in rebellion against the invader, but the Moslem Arabs succeed in extending their domination, and so making the Islamization of the populations progress.

In 711, the landing of the Berber leader Tariq Ibnou Zyad in Gibraltar will mark the beginning of the conquest of Spain.

The caliphate crisis: The Moslem domination strengthens in spite of the making of Kingdoms with rebellious religious doctrines, like the Kingdom kharidjite of Sigilmassa, in Tafilalet, or that of Berghouata, on the Atlantic coast. In 740, an important revolt broke out against the authorities of Damascus, seat of the Caliphate Omeyyade. Little by little, Morocco escapes from their power, and splits in numerous Kingdoms and Principalities.


The idrisside Dynasty

In 788, birth of the first Moslem dynasty, of Middle-Eastern origin. In 791, creation of the Morrocan State. Idriss Ier, descendant of Ali, son-in-law of the prophet, will flee Arabia to escape the massacre of his family, to settle down in Volubilis and will found Fes which, after its death in 792, will be designated as the Capital of the Kingdom by his son successor Idriss II. This last one will take care of the construction of the city in 803, he died in 828. The administration of the Kingdom will be entrusted to his sons, then to his brothers. The economic life will be prosperous in Fes. In 857 and 859 the city will take advantage of prodigious mosques Quaraouiyine and of Andalusians. At the beginning of the XI century, the Idrissides are Caliphs in Cordoba until the division of Spain causes their decline and their disappearance in 1055.


The almoravide dynasty

Berber dynasty native from the Western Sahara, their name comes, from the Arabic "Al Mourabitoun" means the warlike monks, had as Sultan: Youssef Ibn Tachfine who will build the city of Marrakesh (the future capital of the Kingdom) by 1070, then will take care of the political unification between Morocco and Moslem Spain. Through him, the Andalusian civilization will extend in the Maghreb, then at the head of the troops Almoravides, will take possession of Spain up to the Ebre. Ali Ben Youssef, his son, will succeed him in 1106 to reign there during 37 years.





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